Urban Sniper Operations
By: Ghost and the US Army

                The following text was paraphrased and copied fro the US Army's FM 23-10 on sniping. I've cut and pasted what applies to paintball and changed a few words, but all the relevant info is there.


                As a sniper operating in urban terrain, you have several positions to choose from. Attics, street level, and basements all offer shooting cells. Urban terrain offers a maximum amount of cover from fire and view while letting you engage targets at will. A sniper team can stop an advance in urban terrain.


                Be aware of the outer appearance of a building that you are occupying. Don't pick an overly obvious building or structure such as the only brick building in a town setting or the only yellow house. Shooting through barricaded windows is preferred, if most windows are boarded up.  Building loopholes in other windows gives you more options to engage targets. If building or knocking out loopholes is allowed, make them in different sizes and shapes. This will reduce the "Man Made" look and not draw the attention of the opposition. Numerous loopholes make the one you are using inconspicuous and will confuse the people you are firing on. They may know which building you are in, but by the time they figure out where you were in the building, you have already relocated or abandoned the building as appropriate.


                When firing, stay back from your loophole if at all possible. If you fire from inside, the sound will be muffled and you will sound like you are farther away and render you harder to find. Do not fire from the same place continually. This gives the opposition an opportunity to find you and pin you down while they take the building and cut off your retreat.


                Hide Locations

                Room Hide Position.
In a room hide position, the sniper team uses an existing room and fires through a window or loophole. When selecting a position, teams must notice both front and back window positions. To avoid silhouetting, they may need to use a backdrop such as a dark-coloured blanket, canvas, carpet, and a screen. Screens (common screening material) are important since they allow the sniper teams maximum observation and deny observation by the enemy.

                Rafter Hide Position
The sniper team constructs a rafter hide position in the attic of an A-frame-type building. These buildings normally have shingled roofs. Firing from inside the attic
around a chimney or other structure helps prevent enemy observation and fire.


                Hide Occupation

                Sniper teams use the technique best suited for the urban hide position.

(1) The second floor of a building is usually the best location for the position. It presents minimal dead space but provides the team more protection since passers-by cannot easily spot it.

(2) Normally, a window is the best viewing aperture/loophole.

                (a) If the window is dirty, do not clean it for better viewing.

                (b) If curtains are prevalent in the area, do not remove those in the position. Lace or net-type                            curtains can be seen through from the inside, but they are difficult to see through from the outside.

                (c) If strong winds blow the curtains open, staple, tack, or weight them.

(3) Other loopholes/viewing apertures are nearly unlimited.

                Drilled holes (hand drill if allowed).

                Brick removal (if allowed).

                Loose boards/derelict houses.

(4) The sniper makes sure the ball clears the loophole. The muzzle must be far enough from the loophole to ensure the ball's path is not in line with the bottom of the loophole.

(5) Front drops, usually netting, may have to be changed (if the situation permits) from dark to light colors due to sunlight or lack of sunlight into the position.

(10) Always plan an escape route that leads to a rally point. When forced to vacate the position, the team meets the security element at the rally point. Normally, the team will not be able to leave from the same point at which it gained access; therefore, a separate escape point may be required in emergency situations. The team must consider windows (other than the viewing apertures); anchored ropes to climb down buildings.

(11) The type of uniform or camouflage to be worn by the team will be dictated by the situation, how they are employed, and area of operation. The following applies:

                (a) Most often, the BDU and required equipment are worn.

                (b) Urban-camouflaged uniforms can be made or purchased. Urban areas vary in colour mostly grey [cinder block]; red [brick]; white [marble]; black [granite]; or stucco,clay, or wood). Regardless of area colour, uniforms should include angular-line patterns.

                (c) When necessary, most woodland-patterned BDUs can be worn inside out as they are a grey or green-grey colour underneath.

                (d) Soft-soled shoes or boots are the preferred footwear in the urban environment.